Power projects planning to participate in the wholesale market are required to undergo impact studies as part of the interconnection application process. The studies, as a minimum, evaluate the performance of the projects under instantaneous, steady-state and transient conditions. The timescales of phenomena and equipment studied are as illustrated in Figure 1.
In the specific case of transient studies, the impact of a proposed project on the voltage and frequency control capability of the overall grid is evaluated. Traditionally, it was sufficient to consider a timeframe of 0.5 to 10 Hz (10-100 msec) for a type of study known as transient stability. The computer models (and software, such as PSS/E and PSLF) used to conduct these studies are known as phasor-based models. These models capture phenomena limited to the target timeframe.